### Paper in **Philosophy of Mathematics Education Journal ****No. 32 (November 2017)**

This paper presents findings from a literature overview where the focus is to identify and critically reflect on concepts and perspectives highlighted as important in the literature of two fields, critical mathematics education and post-normal science. In addition, the combination of the two perspectives develops thinking about the concept of critical citizenship. The paper is written from a theoretical perspective of critical mathematics education. Critical mathematics education concerns social and political aspects of the learning of mathematics, how mathematics is used in society, and how the development of critical citizenship is carried out both inside and outside the classroom. Post-normal science concerns how complex science-related issues in society can be managed by involving critical citizens. Some researchers suggest that to develop pupils’ critical mathematics perspective, real-world problems such as climate change, can act as a gateway for them to be(come) a critical citizen in an extended peer community.